The first thing we are going to need to draw our first triangle, is to set the shaders that it will use. For the triangle, we will only need 2 shaders, which is the minimum to render 3d objects. We are going to have a fragment shader that just colors the fragment red, and a vertex shader that forms a triangle.

Shaders are written in GLSL, which is OpenGL Shading Language. It’s similar to C, but with some small differences.

Vertex shaders will execute the function (in this case we will use main(), but it can have other names) once per vertex in the drawcall. The job of a vertex shader is to write to gl_Position to output the final location of the vertex, and output more variables to the fragment shader.

The fragment shader will use the variables that come from the vertex shader, and it will be executed once per pixel that each triangle covers. Its job is to output the final color.

We are going to add 2 new files to our shader folder. triangle.frag and triangle.vert

Vertex Shader

Let’s open triangle.vert and write the shader:

//we will be using glsl version 4.5 syntax
#version 450

void main()
	//const array of positions for the triangle
	const vec3 positions[3] = vec3[3](
		vec3(1.f,1.f, 0.0f),
		vec3(-1.f,1.f, 0.0f),
		vec3(0.f,-1.f, 0.0f)

	//output the position of each vertex
	gl_Position = vec4(positions[gl_VertexIndex], 1.0f);

In our first vertex shader, we create a constant array of 3 vector-3s, which will be the positions for each of the vertices of the triangle.

We then have to write to gl_Position to tell the GPU what’s the position for the vertex. This is obligatory for vertex shaders to work. In here we will access our positions array with gl_VertexIndex, which is the number of the vertex that this shader is being executed for. We then convert it into a vec4 because that’s what gl_Position expects.

Fragment shader

//glsl version 4.5
#version 450

//output write
layout (location = 0) out vec4 outFragColor;

void main()
	//return red
	outFragColor = vec4(1.f,0.f,0.f,1.0f);

Our fragment shader is even simpler. We will just return hardcoded red color.

The output line is very important

layout (location = 0) out vec4 outFragColor;

In here, we are declaring the variable for the output of the fragment shader. We are declaring that we will output a vec4 on location 0. If we were writing to multiple images at once, like from a GBuffer, we would have more output variables, but in this case only one is enough.

Compiling the shaders.

If the shaders are on the correct folder, project/shaders, they will be detected by CMake. Re-generate the Cmake visual studio project, and they should be detected. Check the project “Shaders” on the generated visual studio solution, and the new 2 files should be in there. If you rebuild the Shaders project, the shaders should be compiled. In the build output it will give the errors if they happen.

If you look at the CMakeLists.txt at the root project folder, you will see that it’s creating a custom Shader targets building from grabbing all the files that end in *.frag and *.vert from the shaders/ folder. I recommend you read that section. It is commented explaining how it works.

Vulkan Shader workflow

Vulkan doesn’t understand GLSL directly, it understands SPIRV. SPIRV is shader bytecode for Vulkan. Think of SPIRV as a binary optimized version of GLSL.

We need to convert the GLSL we have just written into spirv, so that Vulkan can understand it. That’s what we did above, and the result is some .spv files that we can load onto Vulkan.

The Vulkan SDK comes with a built version of the glslang shader compiler, which is what we are using here to compile the shaders offline. It is possible to use the same compiler as a library, and compile GLSL shaders on-the-fly in your game engine, but we are not going to do that yet.

Loading the shaders in the code

Now that we have our .spv files, we can attempt to load them.

In Vulkan, loaded shaders are stored in a VkShaderModule. You can use and combine multiple of them with multiple pipelines, so we are going to begin by creating a “load_module()” function that will load and compile the SPIRV file into a VkShaderModule

Let’s begin by adding a new function to our VulkanEngine class

//loads a shader module from a spir-v file. Returns false if it errors
bool load_shader_module(const char* filePath, VkShaderModule* outShaderModule);

And start its implementation

bool VulkanEngine::load_shader_module(const char* filePath, VkShaderModule* outShaderModule)
	return false;

We are going to use standard file output from Cpp. Make sure that you add <fstream> to the list of includes in vk_engine.cpp

First thing we are going to do in the load_shader_module function is to open the file

bool VulkanEngine::load_shader_module(const char* filePath, VkShaderModule* outShaderModule)
	//open the file. With cursor at the end
	std::ifstream file(filePath, std::ios::ate | std::ios::binary);

	if (!file.is_open()) {
		return false;

We are going to use the flags std::ios::binary to open the stream in binary mode, and the std::ios::ate to put the stream cursor AT End

In cpp, the file operations are done on streams, and it has a cursor that we will have to use. Because the cursor is now at the end of the file, we can use it to know how big the file is, create a std::vector<uint32_t> big enough to hold the whole shader file, and then copy the entire file into the vector

//find what the size of the file is by looking up the location of the cursor
//because the cursor is at the end, it gives the size directly in bytes
size_t fileSize = (size_t)file.tellg();

//spirv expects the buffer to be on uint32, so make sure to reserve an int vector big enough for the entire file
std::vector<uint32_t> buffer(fileSize / sizeof(uint32_t));

//put file cursor at beginning

//load the entire file into the buffer*), fileSize);

//now that the file is loaded into the buffer, we can close it

With this, we now have loaded the entire shader file into the buffer std vector, and can load it onto Vulkan.

//create a new shader module, using the buffer we loaded
VkShaderModuleCreateInfo createInfo = {};
createInfo.pNext = nullptr;

//codeSize has to be in bytes, so multiply the ints in the buffer by size of int to know the real size of the buffer
createInfo.codeSize = buffer.size() * sizeof(uint32_t);
createInfo.pCode =;

//check that the creation goes well.
VkShaderModule shaderModule;
if (vkCreateShaderModule(_device, &createInfo, nullptr, &shaderModule) != VK_SUCCESS) {
	return false;
*outShaderModule = shaderModule;
return true;

It’s very common to have errors in the shader that will give a fail on vkCreateShaderModule, so we will not use the VK_CHECK macro here.

Creating a VkShaderModule is very straightforward, we just need to fill the create info with the typical Vulkan sType and pnext boilerplate, and then set the code pointer to the vector where we are storing the file. Then we just call the function with it to get the result.

Loading the shaders on initialization.

We are going to add yet another init_ function to VulkanEngine class, init_pipelines(), where we are going to initialize the pipelines for the objects we are going to render. We aren’t going to write the pipeline yet, but we will attempt to load the SPIRV shaders to see if everything is going well.

Add it to the other init_ declarations in the class too

void VulkanEngine::init_pipelines(){

VkShaderModule triangleFragShader;
	if (!load_shader_module("../../shaders/triangle.frag.spv", &triangleFragShader))
		std::cout << "Error when building the triangle fragment shader module" << std::endl;
	else {
		std::cout << "Triangle fragment shader successfully loaded" << std::endl;

	VkShaderModule triangleVertexShader;
	if (!load_shader_module("../../shaders/triangle.vert.spv", &triangleVertexShader))
		std::cout << "Error when building the triangle vertex shader module" << std::endl;

	else {
		std::cout << "Triangle vertex shader successfully loaded" << std::endl;

Let’s load both shader modules using relative paths. It’s very easy to have it not work well, so we will print to the console if the shaders loaded or not.

Only thing left is to call the init_pipelines() function from our main init() function. We can call it at any point we want as long as it’s after init_vulkan(), but we will just add it to the end.

void VulkanEngine::init()
	// ... other stuff ...


	//everything went fine
	_isInitialized = true;

If you run the code at this point, you should see the “successfully loaded” outputs in the console window.

Next: Setting up Render pipelines